Acetonitrile, also known as methyl cyanide, is a colorless liquid that is highly volatile, has a special smell similar to ether, has excellent solvent performance, and can dissolve a variety of organic, inorganic and gas substances. It has certain toxicity and is infinitely miscible with water and alcohol. Acetonitrile is an important organic intermediate, which can take place typical nitrile reactions and is used to prepare many typical nitrogen-containing compounds. Acetonitrile can be used as a solvent for the synthesis of vitamin A, cortisone, carboamine drugs and their intermediates, and as an active medium solvent for the manufacture of vitamin B1 and amino acids. It can replace chlorinated solvent. It is used in vinyl coatings, as extractant of fatty acids, alcohol denaturant, butadiene extractant and solvent of acrylonitrile synthetic fibers, and also has many uses in fabric dyeing, lighting, spice manufacturing and light-sensitive material manufacturing.
Chinese name: acetonitrile Foreign name: acetonitrile
Chemical formula: C2H3N Molecular weight: 41.05
Melting point: - 45.7 ℃ Boiling point: 81-82 ℃
Solubility: miscible with water, soluble in most organic solvents such as alcohol. Density: 0.79 g/cm ³
Appearance: colorless liquid with pungent smell Flash point: 6 ℃ (OC)
Main use: Acetonitrile is mainly used as solvent. For example, it can be used as solvent for butadiene extraction, solvent for synthetic fiber and solvent for some special coatings. Solvent used in petroleum industry to remove tar, phenol and other substances from petroleum hydrocarbons. It is used as solvent for extracting fatty acids from animal and vegetable oils in the oil industry, and as reaction medium for recrystallization of steroid drugs in medicine. When polar solvent with high dielectric constant is needed, binary azeotropic mixture formed by acetonitrile and water is often used: containing 84% acetonitrile, boiling point 76 ℃. Acetonitrile is an intermediate of medicine (vitamin B1) and spices, and is the raw material for manufacturing triazine nitrogen fertilizer synergist. It is also used as a denaturant for alcohol. In addition, it can also be used to synthesize ethylamine, acetic acid, etc., and has many uses in fabric dyeing and lighting industries.